The expanded accounting equation under IFRS is as follows: a Assets = Liabilities + Owner’s Capital + Owner’s Drawings + Revenues Expenses b Assets + Liabilities = Owner’s Capital + Owner’s Drawings + Revenues Expenses. c Assets = Liabilities +

expanded equation

Instead, it shows the aggregate amount of capital contributed by all investors. For example, if ABC company issues 1000 shares of $10 par value common stock at a price of $12 per share then the additional paid-in capital is $2000 (1000 shares x $2). The increases (credits) to common stock and revenues increase equity; whereas the increases (debits) to dividends and expenses decrease equity. Remember, the normal balance of each account (asset, liability, common stock, dividends, revenue, or expense) refers to the side where increases are recorded. The accounting equation, assets equals the combined value of liabilities and equity, is the foundation of accounting and double entry system. The equation signifies that all assets are financed either by borrowing funds or with shareholders invested capital.

expanded equation

These equity relationships are conveyed by expanding the accounting equation to include debits and credits in double-entry form. It is used in Double-Entry Accounting to record transactions for either a sole proprietorship or for a company with stockholders. Although the accounting equation appears to be only a balance sheet equation, the financial statements are interrelated.


You will learn more about this topic in Chapter 3, and Accounting, Business and Society. All users of accounting information can benefit from the long accounting equation as it offers greater visibility of the various elements of stockholder equity. It’s the same as the basic accounting equation, except that it divides equity into different components. The four elements inserted into the owner’s equity are the revenues, expenses, owner’s withdrawals, and owner’s capital.

  • The contributed capital and dividends, on the other hand, show the effect of transactions with the stockholders.
  • He is a CFA charterholder as well as holding FINRA Series 7, 55 & 63 licenses.
  • In accounting, assets are the economic resources owned by a business, which are expected to give future benefits in terms of value.
  • I like to explain what I’ve learned in an understandable and laid-back way and I’ll keep doing so as I learn more about the wonders of physics.
  • Equipment is considered a long-term asset, meaning you can use it for more than one accounting period (a year for example).

Substituting for the appropriate terms of the expanded accounting equation, these figures add up to the total declared assets for Apple, Inc., which are worth $329,840 million U.S. dollars. Understanding this basic accounting equation formula can make your life simpler with finance and accounting in general. The Expanded Accounting Equation is a more detailed version of the Basic Accounting Equation that adds details about changes in owner’s equity due to day-to-day transactions in the business. It provides additional details of how an owner’s equity in the business changes over a period of time, and from which areas of the transactions of a business. This version of the accounting equation gives a more detailed view of the activities that affect owner’s equity over an accounting period. Notice that all of the equations’ assets and liabilities remain the same—only the ownership accounts are changed.

How is the expanded accounting equation written?

Assets can also exist in an intangible form as accounts receivable, the money owed by a company’s debtors, investments, and patents issued by an organization. This equation determines the relationship between the assets, liabilities, and equity. The accounting equation is also known as the statement of financial position equation, as it shows the total number of assets, liabilities, and capital of a business, for a specific period. The expanded accounting equation also demonstrates the relationship between the balance sheet and the income statement by seeing how revenues and expenses flow through into the equity of the company.

We could also use the expanded accounting equation to see the effect of reinvested earnings ($419,155), other comprehensive income ($18,370), and treasury stock ($225,674). We could also look to XOM’s income statement to identify the amount of revenues and dividends the company earned and paid out. The expanded accounting equation is a version of the basic accounting equation that provides more detail by breaking down the components of the owner’s equity section.

Understanding the Expanded Accounting Equation Formula

The first subcategory represents the owner’s stake in the business. The second shows how much money the owners took out of the company. The third and fourth items represent the income and expenses for the year. ABC hires an employee to start producing products with its new machinery. The salary disbursement reduces assets and the salary expense is recorded as a reduction of equity. Owner’s capital refers to the amount that those who purchase the stocks, contribute to the company and it also includes any amount that has been saved by the company over preceding accounting years.

What is the accounting equation for capital?

Capital = Assets – Liabilities

Capital can be defined as being the residual interest in the assets of a business after deducting all of its liabilities (ie what would be left if the business sold all of its assets and settled all of its liabilities).

First, it can sell shares of its stock to the public to raise money to purchase the assets, or it can use profits earned by the business to finance its activities. Second, it can borrow the money from a lender such as a financial institution. You will learn about other assets as you progress through the book. Let’s now take a look at the right side of the accounting equation.

Basic Accounting Equation vs. Expanded Accounting Equation

The first step to do so is to learn how to identify and analyse business events or transactions. Then it will be a matter of identifying the accounting components and recording the transaction. The formula can be rearranged in any way that benefits its user the most. That said, the formula must always be balanced regardless of the order used. When you go by the golden rules of accounting, a balanced accounting equation is inevitable.

expanded equation

Other times, companies do it to reduce dilution from incentive compensation plans for employees. Another motive for stock repurchase is to protect the company from hostile takeover. Distribution of earnings to ownership (shareholders) is called a dividend. The dividend could be paid with cash or be a distribution of more business shares to current shareholders. As was previously stated, double-entry accounting supports the expanded accounting equation. Double-entry accounting is a fundamental concept that backs most modern-day accounting and bookkeeping tasks.

One tricky point to remember is that retained earnings are not classified as assets. Instead, they are a component of the shareholders’ equity account, placing it on the right side of the accounting equation. Buildings, machinery, and land are all considered long-term assets. Machinery is usually specific to a manufacturing business that has a factory producing goods.

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What is the expanded accounting equation for a partnership?

An expanded accounting equation for a partnership breaks out the equity section to include owner's capital, owner's withdrawals, revenues and expenses. Thus, equity = capital – withdrawals + revenues – expenses.

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